Rottal Residence, Holešov
Holešov, Moravia, Czech Republic
1655–1658; 1745–1762; 1797
Filiberto Luchese (1606, Melide – 1666, Vienna), Giovanni Pietro Tencalla (1629 Bissone? – 1702 Vienna?), Badassare Fontana? (1661–1733, Chiasso), H. Cavalli, Gottfried Fritsch (1706, Silesia – 1750, Tovačov), Jan Jiří Schauberger (? before 1725 Vienna, active in Olomouc – 1744 Brno), Ondřej Zahner (1709 Ettershausen – 1752 Olomouc), František Antonín Palko (1717 Wroclaw – 1767 Vienna), František Josef Pilz (1711, Retz – 1797, Horní Bečva)
Secular – aristocratic residence – country chateau
Václav Eusebius of Lobkovice, Duke of Zaháň (until 1650), Jan of Rottal (d.1694), Jan Kryštof of Rottal (1674–1699), Jan Zikmund of Rottal (1699–1717), František Antonín of Rottal (1717–1762), Barbora Erdödy, Bruntálský of Vrbno, Rudolf Kristian Count of Vrbno – Kounic-Riettberg, Qustenberk and Bruntál
The two-floor chateau follows the ground plan of an original late-gothic fortress and was completed in 1574. In 1643 it was plundered by the Swedes. In 1650 the demesne was purchased by Count Jan of Rottal, who started to convert the chateau into a prestigious residence. This was finished under František Antonín of Rottal, in particular. The interiors were completed at the turn of the 18th century when the entrance was also renovated. The hall was used for concerts, the success of which inspired the establishment of a famous theatre in Jaromerice.
The four-wing closed layout of the chateau, on a rectangular ground plan with octagonal corner towers and an arcade courtyard surrounded by a moat, was based on Italian mannerist models. The segmentation of the frontage with regular lesene frames, lent rhythm by an accentuated central section and colossal pilasters in the courtyard, heralded the arrival of Baroque morphology. The main hall spans two floors and is decorated with mighty half-figure telamons.View Short Description
For pure size, purity of style in surviving subsequent construction, layout and interior decoration, the chateau is one of the most impressive early Baroque buildings in Czech lands. The design – by the Italian architect, Luchese, who came to Moravia from Poland – was one of the first examples of the “French-garden” principle in Moravia. The residence, including a chateau, church with family tomb and buildings below the chateau, was renowned for concerts and theatre performances. The interior decoration of churches in the demesne includes some of the most precious examples of Baroque art in Moravia.
The determination of the artists and dates is based on a style analysis and historical events; only a few archive sources have survived. The altars of the “Black Chapel” are dated by a memorial inscription.
Filiberto Luchese (1606, Melide – 1666, Vienna)
In 1650 Jan Rottal was appointed Imperial Secret Councillor. He was also the Supreme War Commissioner, Supreme Provincial Judge of Moravia and the Episcopal Court, Supreme Administrator of Orphans' Property, Chairman of the Royal Tribunal and Provincial Governor! Unsurprisingly, he maintained very close contacts with the court in Vienna. Luchese, in imperial service, made his reputation as a hydrological civil engineer. In Holešov, he designed broad canals along the flower parterre and divided it into four sections. These were adjoined by a kitchen garden and an orchard. The layout of the garden, in its time considered the most beautiful in Moravia, matched that of the chateau.
Badassare Fontana? (1661–1733, Chiasso), H. Cavalli
The hall by the passageway to the garden features a segmented vault. It is decorated, like the chateau floors, with stuccowork containing “mirrors” filled with painted scenes from Ovid's Metamorphoses, figures of gods and muses.
Gottfried Fritsch (1706, Silesia – 1750, Tovačov)
F. A. Rottal had a memorial chapel with a family tomb added to the parish church. Life-size portraits of the investor and his wife adorn the side altars, presenting them as art-loving and pious aristocrats. Together with a relief of Christ on the Mount of Olives, they are considered some of the best work by Gottfried Fritsch, a pupil of G. Donner. At the death of F. A. Rottal, the family died out.
c. 1650; 1735; c. 1740
Filiberto Luchese (1606, Melide – 1666, Vienna), Jan Jiří Schauberger (?, before 1725 Vienna, active in Olomouc – 1744 Brno), Ondřej Zahner (1709 Ettershausen – 1752 Olomouc)
F. A. Rottal recruited leading artists in his services. The high altar does not feature an altarpiece but, instead, there is a sculpture of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary by J. J. Schauberger. The precious sculpted decoration of the church is complemented by a baptismal font by O. Zahner with a sculpture of Christ’s Baptism on Earth, and side altars and statues on the frontage. The sculptors joined forces in other commissions also.
Ondřej Zahner (1709 Ettershausen – 1752 Olomouc), František Antonín Palko (1717 Breslau – 1767 Vienna)
F. A. Rottal was a prominent investor. He built and restored churches (Hostýn) in his demesne, founded a Trinitarian Monastery in Holešov and reconstructed the Church of St. Anne. A lesser-known artist, J. F. Pilz’s paintings were a tour de force.
Bohumil Samek, Umělecké památky Moravy a Slezska I, A-J, Prague, 1994, pp. 500–510.
Ivo Krsek – Zdeněk Kudělka (ed) – Miloš Stehlík – Josef Válka, Umění baroka na Moravě a ve Slezsku, Prague, 1996, pp. 49, 102, 190, 194.
Pavel Preiss, František Karel Palko, Život a dílo malíře sklonku středoevropského baroka a jeho bratra Františka Antonína Palka, Prague, 1999, pp. 250–253.
Jiří Kroupa (ed), Dans le miroir des ombres. Moravie a la age baroque 1670–1790, Paris– Rennes–Brno, 2002, pp. 43–44, 59, 65, 316.
Miloš Stehlík, Barok v soše, Brno, 2006, pp. 104–110.
Zora Wörgötter "Rottal Residence, Holešov" in "Discover Baroque Art", Museum With No Frontiers, 2018. http://www.discoverbaroqueart.org/database_item.php?id=monument;BAR;cz;Mon11_E;29;en
Prepared by: Zora WörgötterZora Wörgötter
AFFILIATION: Moravian Gallery in Brno
TITLE: Museum Curator and Local Co-ordinator
Zora Wörgötter studied Applied Painting at the Secondary School of Applied Arts, Video Art (Faculty of Fine Arts) at the University of Technology in Brno and Art History and Ethnology (Faculty of Arts) at Masaryk University, Brno. She has worked at the Moravian Gallery since 1997 and was curator of the Ancient Art Collection up until 2008. Specialising in Dutch and Central European painting of the 17th and 18th centuries, she has participated in the preparation of several exhibitions, catalogues and research projects in the Czech Republic and abroad, and published in the Moravian Gallery Bulletin, Opuscula historiae artium, and other journals. She is co-ordinator of the Art History Database www.ahice.net for the Czech Republic.
Copyedited by: Jiří KroupaJiří Kroupa
AFFILIATION: Department of the History of Art (Faculty of Arts) Masaryk
Professor Jiří Kroupa studied Art History, History and Sociology Masaryk University, Brno. He was a curator at the Kroměříž Museum and the Moravian Gallery in Brno before joining the staff at Masaryk University in 1988 (Head of the Department 1992–2002; Professor 1999 to present). His particular fields of interest are in the history of architecture, 18th-century cultural history and the methodology of art history. His long list of publications includes an edition on the architect Franz Anton Grimm and an essay “The alchemy of happiness: the Enlightenment in the Moravian context”. He was contributing editor for the volume Dans le miroir des ombres. Moravie a la age baroque. 1670–1790 (2002).
Translation by: Irma Charvátová
Translation copyedited by: Mandi Gomez
MWNF Working Number: CZ 29